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In his book on language and the human mind, Pinker explains how we generalize to make sense of the world. With metaphors and other linguistic tools, we use language to best accommodate our minds, for example by grouping objects and stuff of thought into categories. The numbers used in the evening lecture back in were only slightly different: Saudi Arabia in was and in , 38; Malaysia in was and in , 17; Brazil in was and in , 63; Tanzania in was and in , Sweden had a child mortality rate of in It dropped below 35 in , a process that took 77 years.

Saudi Arabia moved from in to 35 in , roughly the same difference in 33 years. For detailed documentation behind our data on child mortality, see www. Each circle, or bubble, represents a country. The scale is reversed putting large families to the left and small to the right. This is to show progress as a movement from left to right, which is more intuitive. The y-axis shows the child survival rate in percent.

These numbers are more commonly expressed as the indicator child mortality rate in deaths before 5 years of age per 1, live births. Instead of deaths per thousand we changed the rate to percent deaths per because it is more broadly understood, and we also show survival instead of mortality so that the positive direction is upward, which intuitively is more positive. The two boxes are not showing any official thresholds.

An interactive version of the chart will soon be freely available at www. The scale is reversed, putting large families to the left and small to the right. These numbers are more commonly expressed as the child mortality rate in deaths before 5 years of age, per 1, live births. We changed the rate to percent, because it is more broadly understood, and we also show survival instead of mortality so that the positive direction is upward, which intuitively is more positive.

They are there for comparison with the world in In , only 13 countries with 6. For an interactive version of the chart, see gapm. The primary school completion rate for girls is below 35 percent in just three countries. But for all three, the uncertainty is high and the numbers are outdated: Afghanistan , 15 percent; South Sudan , 18 percent; Chad , 30 percent. Three other countries—Somalia, Syria, and Libya—have no official number. The girls in these six countries suffer under severe gender inequality, but in total they make up only 2 percent of all girls of primary school age in the world.

Note that in these countries, many boys are also missing school. On average, respondents believed life expectancy is roughly 45 years, while World Bank[7] says 62 years. They believed that roughly 20 percent of people in low-income countries have access to an improved water source—the correct number, according to World Bank[8] , is 66 percent. Further, they believed 40 percent of children are vaccinated—but data says 78 percent; see World Bank[9] based on WHO[1].

They believed roughly 70 percent are undernourished but it is only 26 percent; see World Bank[10] based on FAO[1]. Gapminder polled the public, asking the question with an open-answer field so respondents were not limited by our three predefined alternatives. In the US, 61 percent of respondents entered a value above 50 percent, guessing that a majority of people live in low-income countries.

The average guesses were 57 percent in the US and 61 percent in Sweden, see Novus[3].

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The results were the same, as if the terms were synonyms. The numbers are rounded to billion people to make it easier to remember. Gapminder[8] estimates that the number of people on each income level in are as follows:. Povcal[1] is the dataset that the World Bank uses to estimate the official rate of extreme poverty worldwide. Data was collected through household income surveys from across the world. National currencies are converted to comparable dollars adjusted for differences between countries in cost of living.

This is because the impact of another dollar is completely different on different income levels. Doubling or logarithmic scales are also used for measuring the size of earthquakes, populations, sound levels, pH levels, and in many other situations when comparing numbers across a large range and where small differences between small numbers are as important as big differences between big numbers. Logarithmic scales are based on the theory of diminishing marginal value, first proposed by Daniel Bernoulli in , as Kahneman describes in his book Thinking, Fast and Slow p.

Doubling scales are explained with more examples in Factfulness on page Approximately 0. On Level 1, in most places, families have on average more than five children, and on average one child dies. See: Graph: Family size by income. In Somalia, Ethiopia, and Rwanda, where a majority live in extreme poverty, most girls aged 5 to 14 spend at least 2 hours every day doing household chores like fetching water, gathering firewood and cooking. But where water is far away or firewood is scarce some children spend the whole day, everyday, fulfilling these tasks.

UNICEF writes that pneumonia remains the leading infectious cause of death among children under-5 years, and primarily for children under age 2. Pneumonia killed 2, children per day in , mainly in extreme poverty. In extreme poverty, almost every home uses coal and biomass wood, animal dung and crop waste for cooking and heating. Life is uncertain on Level 1 and 2. Many maybe half of those leaving the extreme poverty of Level 1 fall back again within a year or two.

Illness often forces them back into destitute, since they have no safety nets or health insurances whatsoever. Voices of the Poor is a three volume publication from the World Bank[12] of interviews with poor people across 47 countries. Many describe the unfortunate events of illness that lead them back into extreme poverty again soon after escaping.

The increased variation of dishes can be seen by looking into the refrigerators of people on different incomes on Dollar Street. The average length of schooling is above 12 years in all countries on Level 4, including many of the gulf states that only recently reached Level 4, like Saudi Arabia and the UAE. The only exceptions on Level 4 are the three small gulf states: Bahrain, Oman, and Qatar.

More than half the citizens in countries on Level 4 traveled abroad in , and large amount of of those trips were for leisure; see The TripBarometer , by TripAdvisor, based on an online survey conducted from January 16 to February 2 in by Ipsos MORI. On Level 4, the average number of tourist departures abroad in was roughly per 1, citizens, which is 6 times higher than the average for Level 3, based on World Bank[13] and UN-POP[1].

On Level 4, the number of new book titles published each year is roughly 1 per citizens. For the estimate of 85 percent on Level 1 in , see the note to page 52, Extreme poverty graph. Historic records of GDP per capita, adjusted for inflation and price differences, puts the majority of Western Europe and the US in the s on level 2 and 3.

That is where the majority of the world population is today. For more on the historic income distribution of Europe and the US, see Gapminder[8]. For one of these lectures, filmed June 8, , see World Bank[14]. The outdated terminology of a divided worldview is specifically challenged beginning at Five months later, the World Bank announced in a public blog post World Bank[15] that they had taken the challenge. They illustrated their decision with a version of the two boxes bubble graph used in this book. This illustrates one aspect of the problematic definitions. In Scandinavia, the official poverty lines are 20 times higher than the poverty lines in the poorest countries, like Malawi, even after adjusting for the large differences in purchasing power; see World Bank[17].

The social and economic challenges of being among the poorest in a rich country should not be neglected, but it is not the same thing as being in extreme poverty. See World Bank[5]. Voices of the Poor is a three volume publication from World Bank[12] of interviews with poor people across 47 countries.

The interviews shed light on the existing differences between levels of poverty. It is clear that those who live in poverty are themselves well-aware of these differences. The overlapping spreads or ranges of numbers p. The graphs showing people distributed by income, comparing Mexico and the United States in , are based on the same data as the four income levels, slightly adjusted to align with the shape of the distributions from the latest available national income surveys.

By adjusting the exchange rates to consider price differences with PPP, the incomes are more comparable across countries. The right chart uses a doubling scale for income, just like all other charts displaying income the book. This image shows what the shapes would look like if they were drawn on a linear scale. For more details see: gapm.

Detailed Notes

At present, the average white household in South Africa can spend roughly five times more money than the average black household. During apartheid in the s, white people earned on average 12 times more than black people, according data from IRR. In the United States as of , white households earned on average 1.

Hans grew up in Uppsala, Sweden, in the working class slum suburb of Eriksberg, next to the Ekeby brick factory. The sewage problem in the early s was just as bad as it is in industrial slums on level 2 across the world today. Not until the s did this part of Uppsala get improved sanitation. The data about fatalities from terrorism comes from GTD and Gapminder[3] for data on terror deaths per income level. In , terrorism worldwide reached its lowest annual death toll in two decades, with only 2, killed worldwide. It then began to increase over the next 12 years.

By , terrorism multiplied tenfold to 32, deaths, but has slowly begun to decline during the past two years. For more on terrorism, see note to page For the poll about fear of terrorism, see Gallup[4]. Fishing vessels are becoming larger and can go out further into the deep seas to find the remaining stocks of fish. The study showed that the share of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels decreased from 90 percent in , to In The Plundered Planet , Collier shows how the real price of a natural resource is calculated—the use by one generation of humans, based on the reproduction rate of the resource.

This is a way of determining how much fish each generation can consume. UNEP[1] reports more than recorded dead zones in polluted coastal areas around the world. This poll was initially conducted by YouGov. The results were so extraordinary that Gapminder decided to see if they could be replicated with a different polling company. In , the same question was asked with Ipsos-MORI and the results were similar: This barchart mixes the results from the two online polls.

YouGov polled 18, people in 17 countries. But we have decided to remove these two outliers because the proportion of people with access to the internet is not large enough to represent the whole population. This is not to discard the plausible and interesting hypothesis that Asians may be more positive than westerners.

In this chapter we introduce the idea that you should never trust the data percent. The levels of extreme poverty historically can not be known exactly. Adjusting for changes in prices, currencies, food, employment and technology is very difficult. In Factfulness we use numbers from Gapminder[9]. The numbers before are based on two sources. To express this in PPP dollar prices is not trivial. The two alternative rates from Bourguignon and Morrisson, Max Roser at OurWorldInData[1] use the higher estimate when showing a single line for the global trend of extreme poverty rate ; Max Roser uses the higher estimate, while we have decided to go for a lower estimate.

This is because the second source, van Zanden[1], indicates a lower rate. The paper World Income Inequality uses historic GDP per capita from Maddison[1] to estimate what income levels people lived on. For the distribution of incomes within countries they use historic records of the differences in heights of people such as military data archives.

Insufficient food during childhood stops growth and leads to a shorter adult person. By estimating the childhood stunting they can guess the share of people missing food, hence living in extreme poverty. We then pull this number back 20 years and assume even more people were poor in We land on 85 percent on Level 1 at the start of the trend in After the data comes from PovcalNet and is described in the note to Fact Question 3.

The official World Bank estimate of extreme poverty in year is Swedes and almost everyone else lived to 32 years or less; see Gapminder[4]. British children began to work at an early age, on average at 10, which varied between regions. Young children were extremely valuable in British coal mines because they were small. Until , many children, some as young as five years old, died while working their 10 hour shifts as trappers. For more on child labor in industrial England, see this article by Griffin The numbers in the text on the reductions in extreme poverty in China, India, Latin America and elsewhere come from World Bank[5] extended to by Gapminder[9] , assuming IMF forecasts are accurate.

In , only the Central African Republic and Lesotho had a life expectancy as low as 50 years. But uncertainties are huge, especially on Level 1 and 2. Learn how much data doubt you should have at www. Livi-Bacci , p. This number is an average of two sources. The famine in India between and began with a drought in This led to food shortage and disease during several years, causing up to 5 million deaths according to the sources listed in the Wikipedia article about the Great Famine. As a result, the Indian life expectancy dropped to roughly 19 years, according to economic historian Mattias Lindgren, see Gapminder[4].

Crosby estimates that the Spanish flu caused 50 million deaths. The world population in was 1. The WFP started its life saving mission in September when an earthquake killed 12, people in Iran, leaving thousands without homes and food. This is further explained on page 73 and note. The citizens of Lesotho are usually referred to as the Basotho. Many Basotho also live outside Lesotho, but here we refer to those actually living in Lesotho.

The uncertainties are huge for all health estimates on Level 1. That is only expressing the uncertainty within the model. When IHME change their model and improve their estimation calculations, the country estimates may change outside these uncertainty intervals. Between the previous two revisions, estimates for 24 percent of all countries changed beyond the confidence interval. In the Global Burden of Disease revision, the lower estimate for was adjusted downwards by 5.

This was mainly due to an improved modelling of the HIV pandemic. This is just one example of the actual size of uncertainty of health estimates on Level 1 and 2. The figures do not imply an ability to understand advanced written messages. The literacy rate for India is from India Census The most recent census data on literacy in India puts the overall literacy rate at 74 percent of the population aged 7 and above.

While literacy differed between states—for example, 64 percent in Bihar and 94 percent in Kerala—the numbers show a 10 percent increase since the last census that was published 10 years earlier. Assuming that the literacy rate continues to increase, it is probable that the majority of India has a literacy rate of at least 80 percent in Not until , with the Swedish school reform making it obligatory for children to attend school, literacy numbers climbed further.

By , the literacy rate was at about 87 percent. Only MCV2 the second shot against measles which brings immunity from 95 to Below are the 32 improvement graphs that are printed in the book Factfulness , on pages 60 to 63 in the English edition, with detailed documentation on how the many sources were used. To count the number of countries where forced labor is legal, we have used different indicators. If state owned companies or the state itself is accused of practicing forced labor and ILO is refused the possibilities to investigate it, the country is considered as practising legal slavery, regardless of its official legislation.

It is a big difference between abolishing slavery in the law and doing so in practice. As with all laws, the enactment relies on law enforcement—that is, police intervention. Our counts of legal shifts in countries in different years should not be interpreted as expressing the extent to which slavery is practiced. Many countries are still not taking sufficient action to end the remaining slavery, as is the case in North Korea , Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. The dates collected of slavery abolishments concern passed laws, constitutions or signatures of UN conventions for all states recognised by the UN , based on three UN treaties:.

The dates when countries passed domestic laws and constitutions, explicitly banning slavery or forced labor, come from the Slavery in Domestic Legislation database, compiled by Jean Allain and Dr. Most historic dates of abolishment before are based on Wikipedia[1], see www. In all governments have a legal document banning forced labor, but some of them seem to be practicing forced labor themselves.

An organisation called www. There are, in addition, plenty of reports of forced labour in North Korean work camps. Therefore we decided to mark these countries as not having made slavery illegal yet, even if all of these countries have signed UN conventions and banned it by their constitution. After gathering the earliest date of abolishment for all countries, we could count the number of countries that are yet to abolish slavery and forced labor for the years — The UN treaty collection is available at the UN treaties website.

For detailed documentation and data behind this graph, visit www. Not only has the amount of oil spilled been falling. The number of accidents dropped from an average of Estimates before come from hundreds of historical sources, primarily www. They have been compiled into one coherent trend line. In summary:. Our county estimates are based on these sources, and our global trend for child mortality rate is using the UN-IGME data for the period to All other years is a weighted mean of countries data. The proper way to calculate the global child mortality, would require estimating the total number of child births and child deaths each year.

The reason to abolish death penalty is not only the terrible risk of wrongful execution. Death penalty breaches two essential human rights: the right to life and the right to live free from torture. Both rights are protected under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in , and should be respected by all members states.

Amnesty International keeps track of countries that have abolished the death penalty after ; see www. To qualify as a country, it requires that the use of death penalty is prohibited as punishment for all crimes. Abolishment prior to in this trend comes from Wikipedia[2], see www. Tetraethyl lead began to be added in gasoline for increased vehicle performance and fuel economy in the s, see www. The first country to ban lead in gasoline was Japan in Since then countries have followed.

The actual degree of child labor is uncertain, but the trend of decline is evident in all sources measured consistently over time. Data from ILO[8] covers the years — It overlaps in time with ILO[7] but reports data for a wider age-interval spanning the years 5—17 years. The age interval reported here is 10—14 years. For , While the global decline of child labor is certain, the actual levels at all times are not. Since writing this book, new numbers supporting our general estimates have been published on OurWorldInData[3]. Annual deaths from natural disasters have decreased by 75 percent over the past years, according to the International Disaster Database; see EM-DAT.

Since disasters vary from year to year, here we compare ten-year averages. In chapter four where we further discuss the decline, we also use year averages. The huge decline in disaster deaths would be even more striking if two other major global changes are taken into account. In — there were disaster deaths per million people. In — the number was Second, years ago the communication technologies for reporting disasters and their victims were very primitive, compared to the monitoring of today.

Many catastrophes must have gone unrecorded ur been underreported. The number of warheads peaked in the mid s and has steadily decreased since. Roughly, 9, of these weapons are in military arsenals; the remaining weapons are retired and awaiting dismantlement. Approximately 4, are operationally available, and some 1, are on high alert and ready for use on short notice. By far, the largest concentrations of nuclear weapons reside in Russia and the United States, which possess 93 percent of the total global inventory.

Smallpox had been one of the major killers of humans. Vaccines were invented already in , but not until was the nasty viruses defeated thanks to massive global vaccination campaigns lead by the World Health Organization. The last known case was recorded in Somalia in Smallpox was the first and so far the only disease eradicated by global vaccination programs. The data was published in the paper Towards the endgame and beyond: complexities and challenges for the elimination of infectious diseases by Klepac, et al The UVB light is also harmful to plants and animals.

When scientists presented evidence of the gases causing the ozone hole, the world reacted fast. All countries agreed to stop using these gases, and ratified the Montreal Protocol in The unit ODP tonnes is not an actual weight measurement, but represent the destructive effects of a substance compared to a reference substance.

The Internet Movie Database IMBd is maintained by film enthusiasts across the world, and has a nearly complete coverage of all feature films, making 3. The trend after is based on the figure on page 30 in UNEP[6]. Between and the trend comes from Abouchakra et al , which is based on UNEP[5] data from february For categories of the IUCN protected areas, see www.

For more about the data behind this graph, visit www. In New Zealand took the step, and then all other countries followed—Australia in , Azerbaijan in , Sweden in but women voted for the first time in and Syria in , to mention a few—except one. Saudi Arabia started letting women vote in and since women are also allowed to drive cars. As of , The Vatican State is the only country left where voting requires male gender. Since then, music recording have increased both in terms of quality and quantity.

The curve shows the number of songs on Spotify, based on the recording date as stated by the ISRC International Standard Recording Code which is a global identifier for sound recordings that let music artists track and charge based on how often their recordings are played in different channels. Of course, not all music recordings are available through Spotify, but the shape of the curve shows the mind blowing increase in cultural expression and consumption. The final data-point in this curve, 2. The first peer-reviewed scientific journal was Philosophical Transactions published by the Royal Society in London.

The first issue was published in March and during its first year in existence scientific articles were printed only counting articles that are more like modern day scientific articles, excluding book reviews and extracts from letters. Today, each acre of cropland produces on average 3.

Roser has adopted the definitions of the Polity IV dataset but give the numbers in terms of inhabitants, not number of countries. The Polity IV dataset puts countries on a democracy scale, and defines non-democratic regimes as autocracies e. China , closed anocracy e. Morocco , open anocracy e. Russia or colonial regimes. In this graph, we only show democracies, hence disregarding all types of non-democratic regimes. Literacy is hard to define and measure.

UNESCO[2] collected data from national surveys and censuses, all using slightly different definitions and methods for measuring literacy. The numbers between and are from van Zanden[3] , who gathered the data from multiple sources, described in the chapter Education since by Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li see p.

The exact levels are even more uncertain than after We removed dips and peaks in the trend line from van Zanden[3] as they might give an impression of non-existing accuracy. Visit Literacy rate—v1 for detailed documentation of the data sources behind this graph. This is not a global average for survival of all children with cancer. The data is for children treated in the US, which is representative for the cancer treatment given to children on Level 4, in Europe, Japan and elsewhere.

The estimate is from NCI[2], see www. This trend is based on UNESCO[3] , and shows the number of girls of official primary school age who are enrolled in primary or secondary school, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary school age girls. The age interval for primary education varies between countries, but it is often between 6 to 11 years of age. Girls of primary school age who are still in pre-primary education are excluded and considered out of school. We have inverted the numbers to show children not out-of-school: the in-school rate.

See also the note to Fact question 1: Girls in school. Despite the fact that the status of many of these species is not improving, we consider it a great improvement that they are at least monitored. Data after come from Red List[4]. The estimates for the following years are handpicked from the following publications and pages: , and come from previous paper editions of the list: Page iv, Red List edition ; Page ix, Red List edition ; and page 4, Red List edition.

It compiled data about 34 mammal species and was managed by The Species Survival Commission under Leofric Boyle, according to the about page at Red List. See also the note to Fact question Endangered species. See also the note to Fact question Electricity. Statistics showing the global increase of mobile penetration often uses data from ITU from the International Telecommunication Union , ITU[1], counting the number of subscriptions, not subscribers. In the world in there were 7. GSMA publishes estimates of the number of unique subscribers, and their data series start with the numbers.

Gapminder has extended the series, combining these two measures by calculating the rate of subscriptions per subscriber for the overlapping year , and then assume that the same rate is applicable from the beginning of the ITU[1] subscription series in when ITU reports 23, subscriptions worldwide. These are combined in Gapminder[22]. The first data point, zero internet users in , is based on the Internet System Consortium ISC , which count internet hosts historically. The first record is from August with hosting servers, why we assume that the year before, the number of users was practically zero.

Data from WHO[1] gives the immunization coverage of all different common vaccines. Gapminder[23] has combined these to one single indicator: the share of children who has received at least one vaccine. This indicates at least some basic form of access to modern health service and scientific medicine.

Read more in the note to Fact question 9: Vaccination. This documentation will be added in the next version of this document. For more information about this chart, see www. The main causes of deaths have been the same throughout human history: bacteria, viruses, starvation, and violence. The common lethal bacterias probably killed people at a constant rate until modern sanitation was invented. Most children died from diarrhea, pneumonia, measles, malaria, or some bacterial infection.

The general risk of interpersonal violence and accidents were constantly higher, but the other main killers—violence, pandemics and starvation—killed at rates that varied enormously between years and places. During most years, there was probably enough food, it was peace and people were somewhat healthy. Paleodemography is an academic research field that attempts to reconstruct the mortality, fertility and age compositions of prehistoric populations based on skeletal samples from archeological sites.

The percentage of infants varies enormously between sites, and occasionally, among hundreds of adults in certain sites, not a single child skeletal is found. Some studies have tried to find out why infants are underrepresented in archeological findings. In a study from Manifold , researchers examined child and adolescent skeletons to assess if local soil properties could make them more easily decomposed.

All groups of hunter-gatherers and hunter-horticulturalists have not been equally brutal. But that is uncommon. Instead, violence among hunter-gatherers were probably at least 10 times more common. For 39 hunter-gatherers populations where archaeologists and anthropologists have assessed the causes of death, they have found flint arrowheads in chests and holes in skulls. Skeletons found in excavations of prehistoric massacres show that children were treated just as brutally as adults. Infanticide is found in many human groups with food scarcity across the world; see Pinker[4]. The hunter-gatherer groups studied by Gurven and Kaplan showed that deaths under age were on average caused by violence.

In violent communities, children are not spared. Members of hunter-gatherer groups generally experienced lots of violence, as described in Gurven and Kaplan , Diamond , Pinker , and OurWorldInData[5]. This terrifying way of losing a child is just as painful as other ways, as consistently documented in traditional societies by anthropologists interviewing parents who had to kill a newborn—Pinker , p.

The data on drownings today comes from IHME[4,5]: see www. Up until , more than 20 percent of the victims of drownings were children below the age of ten. The Swedish Life Saving Society started lobbying for obligatory swimming practice in all schools, which together with other preventive actions reduced the number; see Sundin et al. Use the animated version of the World Health Chart to see how almost all countries are now catching up with Sweden—or select another country to compare—at www.

The material Gapminder produced to try to communicate the urgency of the situation is at ww. The Indian legend, depicting the effect of doubling, is called the Legend of the Ambalappuzha Paal Payasam , named after the temple where it supposedly happened. Roughly a billion people will be added over the next 13 years, based on the revision of World Population Prospects from the population indicator medium fertility variant; see UN Population Data below, UN-Pop[1].

The data is freely available online. The graph to Fact Question 5 shows three forecasts. The dashed line at the bottom of the graph, alternative C, shows the official UN forecast. The trend up to is the UN numbers for the global child population, ages 0— Two billion children is a rounded number. The precise UN numbers are 1.

See also the note to Fact Question 5. The polling devices used to test the audience were from TurningPoint. In , when Hans asked the question to the teachers, the forecast had been published two months earlier. In fact, the official forecasts have stayed the same in the past four revisions of the publication, , , , and Official projections from UN have been freely available to the public for the past 8 years, showing that the number of children in the world has stopped increasing.

Like forecasting the weather, it is almost impossible to perfectly predict the future population. But the demography experts at the UN Population Division have been very accurate in their forecasts for many decades, even before modern computer modeling was possible. Their forecasts of the future number of children have stayed the same in the past four revisions of the publication. The official UN projection is alternative C. The Accuracy of Past Projections is a study from Bongaarts and Bulato that measure past projections, and find that the average error of UN world population forecasts are modest, at 2.

Also Keilman studied the quality of UN population projections, and analyzed forecasts prepared by the UN between to The projections are available at the UN website , as well as the uncertainty intervals of their medium forecasts. To compare the population in prehistory with the current population of three major cities, we use data from the UN Statistics Division published in the Demographic Yearbook— The population was 6.

The sources listed under the chart are only the main sources. The next billion were added to the world population in years after For estimates beginning in year zero, see Table 1, page 5, available to download as PDF. Caldwell and Schindlmayr provides population estimates before in Historical Population Estimates: Unraveling the Consensus published in the Population and Development Review pp.

Fertility rates decline during times of hardship. The dips and humps before shown on the graph were caused by the Second World War and famines. Fertility climbs to rates higher than usual when the crisis is over. Globally, the average fertility rate was at 5. As of , the estimated fertility rate was 2. Replacement rate with the current mortality worldwide is 2. It is aligned with UN-Pop[3] estimates for post; see Gapminder[7]. The dashed line after shows the UN-Pop[1] medium fertility projection, which is expected to reach 1.

The most accurate number is probably estimated at 40 million people who died during the Chinese famine; see necrometrics for a documentation of sources. The age structure of the Chinese population still bear marks of fewer number of children born during the famine. The change from large to small families in a society is called fertility transitions, and refers to long-term decline of fertility in a population. Reduced child mortality in isolation does not automatically reduce fertility, it is more of a prerequisite for lowered fertility; basic education, a move out of extreme poverty, changing values towards rights for women and access to contraceptives are the other important determinants.

In fact, these major aspects of modernization must all come together for each of them to happen. The contributing factors to lowered fertility in a population has a technical term: fertility determinants. And as the UN expert pointed out, decreasing rates in child mortality is only one of those.

Oppenheim Mason argues that it is due to the following wrong assumptions:. Listed first, the major problem of fertility theories is to think that all fertility transitions share one and the same cause—when in reality, a combination of conditions motivates people to prevent most births. To understand fertility decline, a number of causes must be considered. According to Oppenheim Mason, the main determinants make up:.

While the above determinants are necessary to make fertility rates drop, they are not sufficient on their own, Oppenheim Mason says. Changing fertility means changes in family norms, gender roles, sexual behaviour, as well as in education and economy. But the strength of cultural differences is easily overstated, and gender roles change quite fast across all cultures as people get richer, and their way of living is modernized.

In cultures with extended families, including three generations, norms may survive a bit longer and the outdated expectations on women may take longer to transform. Multiple factors behind falling fertility rates are also taken into account by John Bryant, who argues that transition happens as:. Bryant notes that countries slow in initiating fertility drop still manage to catch up fast, and the societal improvements needed for transition become less over time.

But there are two caveats of examples that break the pattern of the fertility slide. This counterintuitive phenomena is what population experts usually refer to as the demographic momentum, a term used to describe the delayed stopping of population increase. The fill-up effect is almost identical to the demographic momentum, but Gapminder has simplified the process by only comparing the size of cohorts.

Future changes in population can be attributed to three factors: fertility, mortality, and momentum. To find out how a population will change, demographers make up a set of variations. By keeping fertility at replacement-level or letting mortality be constant, they can analyze the effects of different fertility and mortality scenarios. In that way, demographers can compare the outcome with their main scenario, and then attribute the difference to the factor they kept constant. If you find it hard to understand the fill-up in the text and graphs in this book, we find it easier to explain with animations or with our own hands—see www.

For more technical descriptions, see from UN-Pop[6, 7]. See also www. Gapminder presents the old balance as a family with 6 children, out of which 4 die. This iconic family represents a theoretical average, measured over the millennia with wide ranges in mortality and fertility. In the long time-frame, however, the average family probably had no more than two surviving children, since population growth on average stayed stable until Nobody knows the average fertility rate before In theory, the maximum number of children per woman would be between 10 and 15 children if all fertile women in a healthy population had sex often and continuously with no attempts to limit fertility.

In reality, it is almost always lower than that, and six children per woman is a likely average. Age specific mortality rates of the first millennials of human history are equally uncertain, but we can assume that over these huge time-horizons, mortality rate was high enough to keep population sizes down; see Livi-Bacci Mortality was unpredictable.

Sudden catastrophes, caused by famines, wars or pandemics, killed many and became much more common with agriculture and crowded settlements, or through contact with other populations that brought germs with them. Gurven and Kaplan writes that:.

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However, those differences are small in a comparative cross-species perspective, and the similarity in mortality profiles of traditional peoples living in varying environments is impressive. The main sources behind our assumptions about fertility and mortality in pre families are Livi-Bacci , Paine and Boldsen , and Gurven and Kaplan The population curve is flat when the fill-up is completed and childbearing is on the level of replacement. The technical term called replacement-level fertility is a measure of children per woman total fertility rate that is needed for the next generation of a population to replace itself.

About 2. If four out of six people die before reaching childbearing age, replacement fertility would be 6 children per woman. The graph presenting family size by income uses the most recent available data from World Bank[5] estimating that Instead of using national averages, household data allow us to include families on Level 1, as well as the poorest families living in countries on Level 2 and 3.

The income levels of households in these datasets are estimated from their material assets, for instance by the number of people per sleeping room, floor-material and means of transport. Life expectancy suffered an extreme dip in Bangladesh because of the Bangladesh war of independence. In , the total fertility rate was 6. In Bangladesh today, the total fertility rate is 2. Since , the under-five mortality rate per 1, live births U5mr has reduced significantly. It fell from In other words, the child survival rate in was surviving children per 1, which means Today, the number is out of 1, which means that The child mortality rate was children per 1, live births in Egypt At www.

The construction of the High Aswan Dam began in to control flooding along the Nile. The dam was completed in and installed ; see gapm. In our animated World Health Chart you can see the progress of Egypt, Bangladesh, or most other countries—search by country and click Play at www. See the talk at TEDxChange where Hans describes how reducing child mortality is both a moral and environmental imperative, here: www.

These 14 graphs of differently shaped lines are all derived from plotting two indicators against each other and then drawing a line in the middle—just like the World Health Chart you see in the beginning of the book. We removed the background bubbles in the small images, because it got too cluttered. Most of these charts use national averages, aggregated by the national income level; see Gapminder[3].

A few the straight line on recreational spending, the S-bend on vaccinations and fridges, and the slide on fertility use household data.

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Our estimates of typical families on different income levels are not based on country averages, because that would severely underestimate the number of the poorest and mask the wide range of differences for countries on levels 1—3. Very few countries follow these lines exactly, but the lines show the general pattern of all countries over several decades. In each example, there are huge differences between countries on every level.

You can explore the actual plotted bubbles behind these lines here: www. The generation time of E. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector in Many lines that are not straight can look straight if you zoom in enough—even a circle. In the passage about the most common fears, we refer to those self-reported among adults. The polls, conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom respectively, reported similar results.

In the Gallup[2] survey, top US fears were snakes; public speaking; and heights, followed by entrapment; spiders and insects; needles; ice; flying; and dogs. In the poll from YouGov[2], the leading fears in the United Kingdom were heights; snakes; and public speaking; followed by spiders; entrapment; mice; needles; and airplanes.

Read more about the fear instinct at www. To avoid underestimating the suffering, we have used the higher number from PDNA. On their FAQ page they explain that their main function is to provide humanitarian workers with key information on global crises and disasters. The data on fatalities in recent years is from IATA.

The data on passenger miles is from the UN agency that managed to reduce the number of accidents, based on ICAO[1,2,3]. We strongly recommend watching this interactive data-driven documentary, which puts all known wars in perspective—at www. Measuring battle deaths is not trivial, as a war zone is no place for careful data collection. These studies publish numbers estimated by combining official sources and media reports from conflicts.

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But this method of estimating conflict fatalities has been disputed by several other researchers. Obermeyer and Murray showed in www. But the representativeness of the sample is not a trivial problem in these extreme events, and the number easily gets exaggerated when a local death toll is multiplied to a broader population. As there is little chance that new primary data will show up about past conflicts, the chances of new reliable estimates from other sources are small. Maybe the tendency is to under-report in some wars in some decade and then over-report in others.

But still, even if they take into account the experts highest levels of doubts and use the widest reasonable uncertainty estimates and they try their hardest to generate an increasing impression of fatalities, by drawing a trendline from the lowest estimates of past conflicts to the highest estimates of the recent conflicts, even such line would be steadily falling.

We rounded this to 18, deaths. Tanigawa et al. About 1, further deaths were indirectly caused by other kinds of problems for mainly elderly evacuees, reports Ichiseki. Nobody was reported dying from the nuclear leak, and WHO concludes that it might be possible to detect a small increase of mortality, but that it is expected to occur in a very limited group of people. According to Pew[1], in , 76 percent of people in Japan believed that food from Fukushima was dangerous. The discussion of health investigations after Chernobyl is based on WHO[5].

It has been reported to be the Chernobyl accident main public health impact that affected the largest number of people. Data about nuclear warheads are from the website Nuclear Notebook. Gordon Gribble tracks the origin of chemophobia back to the publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson, and chemical accidents in the decades that followed. He argues that the exaggerated and irrational fear of chemicals today leads to wrong usage of common resources.

In the US, 4 percent of parents think that vaccines are not important, according to Gallup[3]. In , Larson et al. There were huge variations between countries: from more than 35 percent in France and Bosnia and Herzegovina to 0 percent in Saudi Arabia and Bangladesh. In , measles was the cause of 7 percent of all child deaths. Today, thanks to vaccination, it is only 1 percent. It sparked a global movement with global impact. The data on terror deaths per income level comes from Gapminder[3]. In , drunk drivers in the United States killed pedestrians and cyclists, 1, passengers in the vehicles they were driving, and 1, in other vehicles—a total of 4, deaths, of which 1, were children.

For murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, US statistics are not as transparent with information on blood-alcohol concentrations in offenders. The total number for was 17, homicide victims, according to FBI. To guess how many of those involved a drunk murder, we went to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, BJS[1], Alcohol and Crime: Data From to , which reported a rate between 19—37 percent.

We used the lower estimate of 20 percent, estimating that 3, homicides occured when the murderer was under the influence. One caveat here is that many of these deaths could theoretically have happened without the perpetrator being drunk. Domestic violence often involves alcohol roughly 50 percent , but after the perpetrator almost always the man stops drinking, the violence may continue in half of the cases, according to Klostermann The total estimate is that alcohol was in the drivers and murderers who killed 7, people in the United States That would give us a US figure of roughly 9, deaths a year.

That difference in risks between terrorism and alcoholism figures are is similar comparable across most European countries on Level 4, which all have quite terrible drinking habits: the risk that your loved one will be killed by a drunk person is 50 48 times higher than the risk they will be killed by a terrorist. A more relevant risk calculation should not just divide by the number of all deaths, but rather should take into account exposure to the situations in which these kinds of deaths can occur.

When ready, it will be published here: www. The official child mortality estimate for the whole country was probably different back then. According to WHO[8] , the number of doctors per , people in was 2. After the liberation in Mozambique, extremely few doctors remained in the remote districts; see World Bank[24]. The list of the low-cost, high-impact interventions that save the most lives comes from UNICEF[2], which also set out the essential basic health care to which all citizens should have access before public health budgets start being spent on more advanced care.

The examples of proportions that people tend to overestimate come from Ipsos MORI[2,3] and reveal misconceptions across 33 countries. The survey is called Perils of Perception and presents numbers like these highlights from the UK poll: For the wealth that the top 1 percent owns, the average guess was 59 percent, when the correct figure is 23 percent; on immigration, they guessed that 25 percent of the population are immigrants, when the the correct figure is 13 percent. Innumeracy by John Allen Paulos is full of fascinating examples of disproportionality, asking, for example, how much the level of the Red Sea would rise if you added all the human blood in the world.

The discussion on how educated mothers lead to higher child survival is based on a study of data from countries between and , by Lozano, Murray et al. The data on births and infant deaths in comes from UN-Pop[3]. The bombing of the Bach Mai hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, in and the various reports of events are described in more detail in this passage in the book Hanoi: Biography of a City by William Stewart Logan.

The figures of war deaths in Vietnam between and are based on American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics, and various sources compiled by Necrometrics. For the total death toll, see the American Phase unstarred indicating the median totals to about 1,, deaths and the total of medians to 1,, deaths. Data on US war casualties is available to download as pdf. He wrote to his local newspaper about the absurd neglect of domestic violence against women and went on to start a network for men to help them break their violent behavior.

Read an interview with him in English here. In a dissertation from Karolinska Institutet, Shilan Caman studied domestic violence in Sweden, summarizing on page 82 that:. This was a decrease in comparison to the period before. For —, the number was 13 women per year. The decrease has been 20 percent since the beginning of the s. The data on swine flu comes from WHO[17] and the data on tuberculosis are based on Global Health Observatory data and www.

Smil describes the slow transition away from fossil fuels and also debunks myths about food production, innovation, population, and mega-risks. The world population was 7. The populations of the four Gapminder regions were estimated based on national data: the Americas, 1. See also the note to Fact Question 8. On these graphs, where the world population is divided into west and rest , we refer to what we think the student in the European classroom had in mind — the west consisting predominantly of Western Europe, United States, Canada, and Australia. To see how the majority of people are catching up with the west, see the color-chart at the end of the book, showing the number of people on each income level separated by the four regions, or use this interactive version to animate the income mountains: www.

Friedman Diabetes is one of those diseases that push people back into poverty, when a household might have to spend their entire budget on expensive insulin. See the global report on diabetes from WHO. See the similarities between the cooking pots in China and Nigeria, and more stoves, on Dollar Street.

The distance between Liberia and Kenya, using Monrovia to Mombasa as points of reference, is about 3, miles. For London and Tehran the estimated number is 2, miles. For an interactive version of the graph on page , showing differences in health and wealth in Africa, see www. Madestam and Simeonova report that women who decided to have children and were eligible for the subsidy achieved better health, economy and education for the next generation than women who decided to have children but were not eligible for improved access to birth-control.

The data show the unmet need for family planning and are based on estimates from the UN data set, World Contraceptive Use The data set provides estimates for all women of reproductive age, 15—49 years, who are married or in a union. See, for example, contraceptive prevalence rate for the select countries, along with more details. You can explore the data in the interactive chart further down the page. While we report the percentages of women who say their needs for contraceptives are met, UN publishes the reverse numbers, as rates of unmet need for family planning.

The data set, World Contraceptive Use , is available here: www. CAS contains million organic and synthetic chemicals and their properties. It shows that toxicity is not related to who produces the compound. See more about the Salhi family at www. If you think we have too few homes from Tunisia or elsewhere on www.

Read more about how you can do it at: www. The recovery position was not standardized until decades later, in the early s, when it emerged in general first aid handbooks. See Wikipedia[10] for more on the history of the recovery position. The number of sudden infant deaths fell during the s due to successful intervention campaigns telling mothers not to leave their babies in the prone position. But these campaigns only helped bring down the rates of sudden infant deaths to the same low levels where they used to be, before the prone position was promoted.

The aurora has a sinuous ribbon shape that separates into discrete spots near the lower right corner of the image. While the dominant coloration of the aurora is green, there are faint suggestions of red photon emission as well light fuscia tones at center left. Dense cloud cover is dimly visible below the aurora. The curvature of Earth's horizon, or limb, is clearly visible as is the faint blue line of the upper atmosphere directly above at top center. Several stars appear as bright pinpoints against the blackness of space at top right.

On October , a mass of energetic particles from the atmosphere of the sun were flung out into space, a phenomenon known as a coronal mass ejection. Three days later, the storm from the sun stirred up the magnetic field around Earth and produced gorgeous displays of northern lights.

NASA satellites track such storms from their origin to their crossing of interplanetary space to their arrival in the atmosphere of Earth. This is a satellite view of the aurora borealis taken early on the morning of 8 October The northern lights stretch across Canada's Quebec and Ontario provinces in the image. Many people have spent time outdoors under a dark sky, watching for "shooting stars" to streak across the firmament.

While not actual stars, "shooting stars" do come from outer space, in the form of meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere. Meteoroids are small objects moving through the solar system that are attracted to the Earth by its gravitational pull. These small objects - typically fragments of asteroids or comets, though they can also originate from the Moon or Mars - begin to heat and burn up as they collide with air molecules in Earth's atmosphere, creating a bright vapor trail or streak.

At this point, the object is known as a meteor. If any remnant of the object survives to impact the Earth's surface, it becomes known as a meteorite. While most meteorites are natural in origin, on occasion manmade space debris can reenter the atmosphere and also become a meteor or even a meteorite! This astronaut photograph provides the unusual perspective of looking down on a meteor as it passes through the atmosphere. Green and yellow airglow appears in thin layers above the limb of the Earth, extending from image left to the upper right.

Atoms and molecules above 50 km 30 mi in the atmosphere are excited by sunlight during the day, and then release this energy at night, producing primarily green light that is observable from orbit. Part of a space station solar panel is visible at image upper right; behind the panel, a bright region indicates the Sun low on the horizon. At high latitudes in the summer months, night-shining or noctilucent clouds form between 76 to 85 km 47 to 53 mi above the surface of the Earth. Their high altitude allows them to reflect sunlight after the sun has set.

In this image, centered on the North Pole and acquired on 11 June , white indicates clouds with the greatest density of ice particles and dark blue indicates clouds with the lowest. Because ice particles reflect sunlight, a greater concentration of such particles creates a higher albedo - the ratio of reflected light to total incoming light.

Areas of no data appear in black, and landmass outlines appear in blue-green. Polar mesospheric clouds - also known as noctilucent or "night shining" clouds - form between 76 to 85 km 47 to 53 mi above the Earth's surface, near the boundary of the mesosphere and thermosphere, a region known as the mesopause. At these altitudes, water vapor can freeze into clouds of ice crystals.

When the sun is below the horizon and the ground is in darkness, these high clouds may still be illuminated, lending them their ethereal, "night shining" qualities. Polar mesospheric clouds have been observed from all human vantage points in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres - from the surface, in aircraft, and from spacecraft - and tend to be most visible during the late spring and early summer.

Polar mesospheric clouds also known as noctilucent clouds are transient, upper atmospheric phenomena observed usually in the summer months at high latitudes greater than 50 degrees of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They are bright and cloudlike in appearance while in deep twilight.

They are illuminated by sunlight when the lower layers of the atmosphere are in the darkness of the Earth's shadow. This image was acquired from the International Space Station at an altitude of just over km mi in the pre-dawn hours. Introduction :: World. Background : This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

Globally, the 20th century was marked by: a two devastating world wars; b the Great Depression of the s; c the end of vast colonial empires; d rapid advances in science and technology, from the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina US to the landing on the moon; e the Cold War between the Western alliance and the Warsaw Pact nations; f a sharp rise in living standards in North America, Europe, and Japan; g increased concerns about environmental degradation including deforestation, energy and water shortages, declining biological diversity, and air pollution; h the onset of the AIDS epidemic; and i the ultimate emergence of the US as the only world superpower.

The planet's population continues to explode: from 1 billion in to 2 billion in , 3 billion in , 4 billion in , 5 billion in , 6 billion in , and 7 billion in For the 21st century, the continued exponential growth in science and technology raises both hopes e. Geography :: World. Geographic overview:.

Map references : This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. Physical Map of the World.

Area : This entry includes three subfields. Area - comparative : This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census. Image Description. Area - rankings:. Land boundaries : This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.

When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ. Coastline : This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea. Maritime claims : This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS Part II ; this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying s.

Climate : This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year; in the Word entry only, it includes four subfields that describe climate extremes:ten driest places on earth average annual precipitation describes the annual average precipitation measured in both millimeters and inches for selected countries with climate extremes. Terrain : This entry contains a brief description of the topography. Ten Cave Superlatives: compiled from "Geography - note s " under various country entries where more details may be found largest cave: Son Doong in Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, Vietnam is the world's largest cave greatest cross sectional area and is the largest known cave passage in the world by volume; it currently measures a total of Elevation : This entry includes the mean elevation and elevation extremes, lowest point and highest point.

Natural resources : This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance, such as rare earth elements REEs. In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future. Irrigated land : This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water. Population distribution : This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country.

While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures. Natural hazards : This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes. Environment - current issues : This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.

Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Geography - note : This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere. People and Society :: World. Population : This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends.

The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Note: Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t. Languages : This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages.

When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language. For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language. Religions : This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.

The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali known as Baha'u'llah in Iran in , Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God. Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. Age structure : This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: years children , years early working age , years prime working age , years mature working age , 65 years and over elderly.

The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population. This is the population pyramid for the World. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development.

The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab. Dependency ratios : Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population.

They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others. Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures. As fertility leve. Median age : This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older.

It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high. Population growth rate : The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country.

The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e. Rapid population growth can be seen as. Birth rate : This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth.

It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. Death rate : This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining.

Urbanization : This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time.

Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th. Sex ratio : This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons.

This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. Maternal mortality rate : The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths per , live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes. The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year. Infant mortality rate : This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year.

This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. Life expectancy at birth : This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.

It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures. Total fertility rate : This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman.

This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme. Drinking water source : This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country. Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: piped water into dwelling, yard, or plot; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected dug well; protected spring; or rainwater collection.

Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: unprotected dug well; unprotected spring; cart with small tank or. Sanitation facility access : This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country.

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  • Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit VIP latrine; pit latrine with slab; or a composting toilet. Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush not piped to a sewer system, septic tank. Education expenditures : This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.

    Literacy : This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook.

    Information on literacy, while not a perfect measu. School life expectancy primary to tertiary education : School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.

    Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit. Government :: World. Capital : This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST. Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.

    Administrative divisions : This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters. Legal system : This entry provides the description of a country's legal system.

    A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: civil law including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law ; common law including United State law ; customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law including Islamic law. An addition. Legislative branch : This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.

    The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. Flag description : This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

    Economy :: World. Economy - overview : This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

    For more information, see attached spreadsheet. Fiscal and Monetary Data, Spreadsheet. GDP purchasing power parity : This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity PPP exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States in the year noted.

    This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measur. GDP official exchange rate : This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output.

    Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate : This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent. The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. Gross national saving : Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

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    The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative. GDP - composition, by end use : This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

    GDP - composition, by sector of origin : This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

    Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod. Industries : This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.

    Industrial production growth rate : This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction. Labor force : This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation : This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods.

    The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding. Unemployment rate : This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted. Household income or consumption by percentage share : Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data.

    Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. Distribution of family income - Gini index : This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country.

    The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of a the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its. Budget : This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures.

    These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Taxes and other revenues : This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises.

    Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits relat. Public debt : This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency.

    Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings. Inflation rate consumer prices : This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices. Stock of narrow money : This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation notes and coins plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time.

    National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate moveme. Stock of broad money : This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.

    National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange r. Stock of domestic credit : This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector.

    The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information. Market value of publicly traded shares : This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange.

    Exports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. Exports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Imports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c. Imports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

    Debt - external : This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home : This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.